Directory of U.S. Military Rockets and Missiles
Appendix 3: Space Vehicles
LS-3
WS-2
ES-4
Copyright © 2003-2008 Jos Heyman
 (HTML formatting by Andreas Parsch) 

TRW/AESC LS-3 DSP

The Integrated Missile Early Warning System (IMEWS) or Defense Satellite Program (DSP), was an operational system of military early warning satellites. Built by TRW, the satellites were equipped with television cameras and infrared sensors operating through a Schmidt telescope which was offset from the main axis of the telescope by 7.5° so that, with the satellite spinning at 6 rpm, a conical scanning pattern was achieved. Over several scans this allowed observers to distinguish between a stationary heat source, such as a forest fire, and a moving heat source, such as a missile.

Also known as Code 647 and LS-3A, the first generation of satellites is believed to have carried an array of 2000 infrared sensors whereas the second generation carried 6000 such sensors. The satellites are believed to have had a length of 7.01 m, a diameter of 2.78 m and a mass of 1100 kg. The operational system consisted of five satellites of which three were operational and two in-orbit spares. The locations which have been mentioned in subsequent reference sources included 36°W, 70°W, 85°W, 105°W, 134°W, 72°E and 75°E and it is suggested that satellites were periodically shifted to other locations.

Photo: Author's collection
LS-3A
IMEWS-4 (1973 040A)


IMEWS-10, IMEWS-11 and IMEWS-12 incorporated significant modifications to improve their performance and were designated as LS-3B.

Photo: Author's collection
LS-3B
IMEWS-21 (2001 033A)


The third generation, commencing with IMEWS-14 comprised nine satellites. They had a length of 10 m, a diameter of 4.15 m and a mass of 2500 kg. The operational system consisted of three satellites in geostationary orbit over the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. The satellites were equipped with an improved telescope and 6000 infrared sensors with future versions having a capacity of 24,000 sensors. Some or all of the satellites in the series also carried a magnetospheric plasma analyser to measure low-energy ions and plasma, as well as a particle analyser, to measure energetic particles.

Image: USAF
LS-3B


Name Intl. Designation Launch Re-entry Notes
IMEWS-11970 093A6-Nov-1970  Also known as Ops-5960; failed to achieve correct orbit
IMEWS-21971 039A5-May-1971  Also known as Ops-3811
IMEWS-31972 010A1-Mar-1972  Also known as Ops-1570
IMEWS-41973 040A12-Jun-1973  Also known as Ops-6157
IMEWS-51975 118A14-Dec-1975  Also known as Ops-3165
IMEWS-61976 059A26-Jun-1976  Also known as Ops-2112
IMEWS-71977 007A6-Feb-1977  Also known as Ops-3151
IMEWS-81979 053A10-Jun-1979  Also known as Ops-7484
IMEWS-91981 025A16-Mar-1981  Also known as Ops-7350
IMEWS-101982 019A6-Mar-1982  Also known as Ops-8701
IMEWS-111984 037A14-Apr-1984  Also known as Ops-7641
IMEWS-121984 129A22-Dec-1984  Also known as USA-7
IMEWS-131987 097A29-Nov-1987  Also known as USA-28
IMEWS-141989 046A14-Jun-1989  Also known as USA-39
IMEWS-151990 095A13-Nov-1990  Also known as USA-65
IMEWS-161991 080B25-Nov-1991  Also known as USA-74
IMEWS-171994 084A22-Dec-1994  Also known as USA-107
IMEWS-181997 008A24-Feb-1997  Also known as USA-130
IMEWS-191999 017A9-Apr-1999  Also known as USA-142; failed to achieve correct orbit
IMEWS-202000 024A8-May-2000  Also known as USA-149
IMEWS-212001 033A6-Aug-2001  Also known as USA-159
IMEWS-222004 004A14-Feb-2004  Also known as USA-176
IMEWS-232007 054A11-Nov-2007  Also known as USA-197

Launch dates of the IMEWS series

The launches of the last two IMEWS satellites, IMEWS-24 and -25, were cancelled.

Background

The primary objective of the early warning satellite development was to fill the gaps in the coverage provided by the land based Ballistic Missile Early Warning System utilised by the United States to provide an early detection of a missile attack. The system initially consisted of a chain of three large radar stations which observed the USSR.

Midas

The Missile Detection And Surveillance (Midas) series of experimental military early warning satellites tested the feasibility of complementing the land based Ballistic Missile Early Warning System. The spacecraft were built by Lockheed and were based on the Agena upper stage. The satellites were equipped with infrared sensors developed by IT&T, which could detect missiles as soon as they would be launched. These sensors had only a limited capability and were not successful.

The first two satellites in the series were placed in relatively low orbits, which was all that could be achieved for the 2000 kg satellite in combination with the Atlas Agena A launch vehicle. Subsequent satellites were lighter (1600 kg) due to the use of solar cells instead of batteries, and did use the Atlas Agena B combination, allowing them to be placed in a higher orbit of about 3500 km, commencing with Midas-3. Midas-2 also carried a magnetometer, a micrometeorite detector and an ion and electron detector as ancillary instruments.

It is believed that the programme was only partially successful due to the limited capability of the sensors that were carried. The Midas series of satellites were also used to place ancillary satellites of a technology nature in orbit, whilst Midas-4 and Midas-7 conducted the Project Westford experiments in communications.

Name Intl. Designation Launch Re-entry Notes
Midas-1---26-Feb-1960--- Failed to orbit
Midas-21960 ζ124-May-19607-Feb-1974  
Midas-31961 σ112-Jul-1961   
Midas-41961 αδ121-Oct-1961  Used in Project Westford
Midas-51962 κ19-Apr-1962   
Midas-6---17-Dec-1962--- Also known as Ops-5201; failed to orbit
Midas-71963 014A9-May-1963  Used in Project Westford
Midas-8---12-Jun-1963--- Also known as Ops-1240; failed to orbit
Midas-91963 030A19-Jul-1963  Failed to separate from ERS-10

Launch dates of the Midas series

Improved Midas

The sensor development undertaken as part of the Midas programme led briefly to a satellite proposal identified as Code 461. This programme was cancelled in favour of the Code 266 programme which the author has labelled as Improved Midas. The three satellites in this series are believed to have tested the use of television cameras in conjunction with the infra-red detectors but may have been unsuccessful.

Photo: Author's collection
Improved Midas-2 (1966 077A)


Name Intl. Designation Launch Re-entry Notes
I. Midas-11966 051A9-Jun-19663-Dec-1966 Also known as Ops-1960 and FTV-1351
I. Midas-21966 077A19-Aug-1966  Also known as Ops-0856 and FTV-1352
I. Midas-31966 089A5-Oct-1966  Also known as Ops-1920 and FTV-1353

Launch dates of the Improved Midas series

BMEWS

For some years it was thought that a series of six satellites launched between 1968 and 1975 were the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) series to replace the earlier Midas system of military early warning satellites. Also referred to as Code 949, the satellites were thought to have been built by TRW and were reported to be equipped with infrared sensors developed by Aerojet and a television system developed by RCA. Information gathered since then have identified the satellites as part of the Canyon and Rhyolite series of intelligence gathering satellites.


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Last Updated: 18 January 2008